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Showing posts with label UNEMPLOYMENT. Show all posts
Showing posts with label UNEMPLOYMENT. Show all posts

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

India’s Stand on ILO Conventions Briefed to the Parliamentary Consultative Committee of M/O Labour & Employment

The Consultative Committee members of the Ministry of Labour & Employment have urged the Government to ensure due patronage to the traditional skill while going for the ratification of Conventions adopted by the International Labour Organisation (IlO) on Labour issues, especially in the arena of Child Labour. The members have also called for expediting the cause of providing a minimum pension of Rs. 1000 per month to the EPF beneficiaries as well as to ensure proper registration of workers in the unorganized sectors particularly the construction workers.

The meeting of Consultative Committee of Labour & Employment Ministry which held yesterday evening was convened for providing in insight to the members of the various conventions of ILO as ratified by the Government of India on time to time. Speaking on the occasion, Union Labour & Employment Minister Shri Mallikarjun Kharge who chaired the meeting, said India, a Founding Member of the ILO, has been a permanent member of the ILO Governing Body since 1922. ILO has now expanded its membership to 185 nations. The first ILO Office in India started in 1928. The decades of productive partnership between the ILO and its constituents has mutual trust and respect as underlying principles and is grounded in building sustained institutional capacities and strengthening capacities of partners. It has a two-directional focus for socio-economic development: overall strategies and ground-level approaches.

The Minister said the approach of India with regard to International Labour Standards has always been positive. The ILO instruments have provided guidelines and useful framework for the evolution of legislative and administrative measures for the protection and advancement of the interest of labour. It has always been the practice in India that we ratify a Convention when we are fully satisfied that our laws and practices are in conformity with the relevant ILO Convention. The ILO has so far adopted 189 Conventions and 201 Recommendations. Out of 189 ILO Conventions, India has so far ratified 43 Conventions which includes 4 (four) core or fundamental human rights Conventions.

He said we have ratified 4 core conventions and 3 priority/governance conventions. The 4 core conventions ratified by us are Forced Labour Convention (No.29), Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No.105), Equal Remuneration Convention (No.100) and Discrimination (Employment Occupation) Convention (No.111), and the 3 priority conventions ratified are Labour Inspection Convention (No.81), Employment Policy Convention (No.122) and Tripartite Consultations (International Labour Standards) (No.144). Even where for certain reasons where we may not be in a position to ratify a Convention, we have generally voted in favour of the Convention reserving its position as far as its future ratification is concerned.

The journey of ILO over the last more than nine decades has been eventful and full of important milestones. However, the primary function of ILO is standard setting and their application. Many of the ILO Conventions are outdated and need to be revised as identified by Cartier Working Party. Even the core conventions have failed to achieve universal ratification due to lack of flexibility. Our concern is that ILO should undertake in-depth analysis to put in place a standards strategy which encourages steps like progressive ratification of a Convention. The choice of topics for future standard setting should be widened according to the requirements of all ILO member states having diverse socio-economic conditions. In the years to come, ILO must maintain its leadership in the subjects related to labour since it has the unique advantage of tripartite structure, transparency and the ability to obtain inputs from real economy, Shri Kharge added.

Shri Kharge said the challenges being faced by the Member states on Ratification and promotion of fundamental and governance ILO Conventions are due to non-conformity with national laws and lack of technical assistance. He said India’s stand is that the process of ratification of these conventions should be a gradual one and adequate time should be given to the Member States for creating favourable conditions for ratification, taking into account the socio-economic realities of each Member state. The link-up of the four Governance Conventions to the Social Justice Declaration should be more of promotional in nature. We should adopt a more pragmatic and realistic approach for ratification and promotion of these conventions through creating awareness, building capacities of the constituents, advocacy, training and technical cooperation.

A power point presentation on the preparedness and attention paid by the Government at the ILO meetings was also presented during the meeting.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Unemployment to remain high in developed world: OECD

Unemployment levels will remain high in most of the developed world till the end of next year and low-skilled people are expected to bear the brunt, OECD said.
“To get employment rates back to pre-crisis levels, about 14 million jobs need to be created in the OECD area.
Members of the grouping, that accounts for over 60 per cent of global economic output, include the US, Germany and the UK.
“The current weak economic recovery will keep unemployment rates in OECD countries high until at least the end of 2013,” it noted.
The jobless rate in the 34-nation OECD region is projected to be 7.7 per cent in the fourth quarter of 2013, close to the high of 7.9 per cent unemployment rate recorded in May this year.
“This leaves around 48 million people out of work across the OECD. In the euro area, unemployment rose further in May to an all-time peak of 11.1 per cent,” Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) said.
Amid persisting European debt turmoil hurting global economic growth prospects, many businesses are either not adding new people or are looking to trim workforces to reduce costs.
OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurria said recent deterioration in the economic outlook was very bad news for the labour market.
“Moreover, job creation during the weak recovery of the past two years has often been concentrated in temporary contracts because many firms are reluctant to hire workers on open-ended contracts in today’s uncertain economic environment,” OECD noted.
The employment situation is witnessing diverse trends across countries. Unemployment has been rising in the European Union since the end of 2011 but has been stable at around 8.25 per cent in the US.
In OECD countries, the unemployment rate was the highest in Spain 24.6 per cent, with double-digit rates also in Estonia, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and the Slovak Republic.

Monday, August 8, 2011

Urban Unemployment Gurantee Scheme

As per Government of India (Allocation of Business Rules), 1961, Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development is the Nodal Ministry for (a) All matters pertaining to rural employment or unemployment such as working out of strategies and programmes for rural employment including special works, wages or income generation and training related thereto. (b) Implementation of the specific programmes of rural employment evolved from time to time (c) Micro level planning related to rural employment or unemployment and administrative infrastructure. Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation is the Nodal Ministry for implementation of the specific programmes of Urban Employment and Urban Poverty Alleviation including other programmes evolved from time to time.

Government of India has no proposal under consideration to launch any Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme on the lines of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in the country. However, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation has been implementing an employment oriented Centrally Sponsored Scheme for urban areas, namely, Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) on all India basis with effect from 1st December, 1997. The Scheme has been comprehensively revamped in February, 2009 to address various issues arising from implementation.

Migration of Labourers

Under Minimum Wages Act, 1948, both Central and State Governments are appropriate Governments to fix , review and revise the minimum wages for workers employed in scheduled employments under their respective jurisdiction. Information in respect of firm wages is not maintained. However, the National Floor Level Minimum Wages has been increased from Rs. 100/- to Rs. 115/- per day with effect from 01.04.2011. The State Governments are persuaded to fix/revise minimum wages in such a way that in none of the scheduled employments the minimum wages is less than National Floor Level Minimum Wages.

Bonded Labourers System (Abolition) Act, 1976

The data relating to bonded labourers is not maintained sex-wise. According to the reports received from the State Governments, the number of bonded labourers identified, released and rehabilitated under the Centrally Sponsored Plan Scheme is as under:-
Name of the State
Number of Bonded Labourers
Identified and Released
Rehabilitated
Andhra Pradesh
37,988
31,534
Arunachal Pradesh
3,526
2,992
Bihar
14,615
13,797
Chhattisgarh
812
812
Gujarat
64
64
Haryana
591
89
Jharkhand
196
196
Karnataka
63,437
57,185
Kerala
823
710
Madhya Pradesh
13,317
12,392
Maharashtra
1,404
1,325
Orissa
50,029
46,901
Punjab
69
69
Rajasthan
7,488
6,331
Tamil Nadu
65,573
65,573
Uttar Pradesh
29,046
29,046
Uttaranchal
5
5
West Bengal
344
344
Total
2,89,327
2,69,365
               
                The Supreme Court has directed that the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) should be involved in dealing with the issue of bonded labour. The court has also issued directions from time to time for compliance by the state governments regarding identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded labourers. In pursuance of the direction of the Supreme Court, NHRC is monitoring and reviewing the efforts made by the state governments towards implementing the provisions of the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976, through regular interaction with the concerned authorities. NHRC also conducts familiarization-cum-sensitization workshops on the elimination of bonded labour and child labour at the state level.
The Constitution of India under Article 23(1) prohibits ‘begar’ and other similar forms of forced labour. The bonded labour system was abolished by law throughout the country w.e.f. from 25th October, 1975 under the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Ordinance which was replaced by Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. It extends to the whole of India. As per the Act, no person is allowed to make an advance under or in pursuance of the bonded labour system and no one can compel any person to render any bonded labour or other form of forced labour.
                No checks have been imposed on the funds sanctioned for utilization of identifying bonded and child labour.

Contract Workers

The employers in the mines/industries both in public as well as private sectors can engage contract workers in their establishments as per their requirements if the contract work has not been prohibited under Section 10(1) of Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970. In the establishments falling under Central Sphere, regular inspections are conducted and appropriate action is taken including filing of prosecutions by Central Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM) headed by Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) under Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970 so as to safeguard the interest of workers.

Apart from action under Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970, short or non payment of wages, if reported under Minimum Wages Act and/or Payment of Wages Act, action is also taken by way of filing claim cases before the Authorities concerned.

Registered Unemployed

The Minister of Labour and Employment  Mallikarjun Kharge August 08  informed the Lok Sabha that Government of India is fully aware of magnitude of problem of unemployment among the educated youth in the country. Basic problem in the country is not of unemployment but of under employment. The poor cannot afford to remain unemployed and therefore, unemployment rate among the poor is very low as compared to educated youth who are from the relatively better of economic family background. Higher the level of education attainment, higher is the rate of unemployment. This is because of the fact that they can afford to remain unemployed to search for better employment opportunities. In order to bridge the employment gap to harness the benefit of demographic dividend, Government of India has undertaken Skilled Development Mission to make them more employable for engaging them in more productive employment.

Replying to a written question in the Lok Sabha today th e Minister said that the total number of youth job seekers in the age group of 15-29 year, all of whom may not necessarily be unemployed , registered with employment exchanges as on 31-12-2008 combined for rural and urban areas was 2.70 crore.

Government have taken several steps to reduce unemployment in the country. The focus is on creation of productive employment at a faster pace in order to raise incomes of masses to bring about a general improvement in their living conditions. The job opportunities are created on account of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), investment in infrastructure development, growth in exports etc.

UNICEF’S Report on the State of the World’s Children-2011 has reported that with 81 million young people out of work, youth unemployment is now a concern in almost every country. Adolescents struggle to find decent work guaranteeing them a foot hold above the poverty line. In many developing countries, the paucity of opportunities for productive full-time employment means that the first experience of work for young people is too often one of waste talent, disillusionment, under employment and continued poverty. However, the observation does not hold good for Indian Labour Market. Recent NSSO survey reveals a major trend of the past five years has been a decline in labour force participation rate. The decline in labour force participation rate could mainly be due to the increase in participation of the young population in education and increase in wages of principal status workers over the years.

Government of India has also been implementing various employment generation programmes, and important ones are: Swarana Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY); Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP); Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) besides entrepreneurial development programmes run by the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises.